Diabetics Mellitus is an Endocrinal Disorder. Insulin is a hormone which is secreted by the Pancreas; it maintains the blood glucose level in the body. You see If you have too much of Glucose in your body it’s harmful and vice versa, so the body wishes to be in equilibrium when it comes to glucose.
You can have two kinds of Diabetics: Type I or Type II Diabetics.
Type I DM (Diabetic Mellitus):
It was previously called the Insulin Dependent DM. Patients develop this at an early age, also called Juvenile DM. So basically why does this happen? These Patients completely lack the Pancreatic Beta Cells that secrete Insulin so in their treatment Insulin is given subcutaneously by using a syringe. The predisposing factor of this DM mostly consists of Genetic factors. If Your father has this , there is 9% of chances that you will get it, If Your Mother has this , You have 3% chances of developing and If Both of Your Parents have this there is about 30 % Chances.
Type II DM
So this is the leading Diabetics that is haunting everyone.
Why does this happen?
The body secretes Insulin and so the patients don’t require Insulin Injection, also referred to as the Non Insulin Dependent DM. The body develops resistance to Insulin action. Also some parts of the Pancreatic Beta Cells decline to function. You might have heard people say, Border line Diabetics, well that’s actually called Impaired Glucose Tolerance, which means that you are likely to develop the full blown DM within a year or two, unless you make some changes in lifestyle. The function of the Pancreatic Beta is gradually diminishing and with the Insulin Resistance creates the full blown Diabetics.
• Genetic Predisposition
• Sedentary Life Style: Lack of Exercise.
• Obesity : Having a Body Mass Index greater than 30KG per meter square
• Over Eating
• Age factor : Middle Aged ( above 50 years)
The three ‘P’s are the diagnostic Criteria:
Polyuria: Increased Frequency of micturation (peeing)
Ployphagia: Increased appetite for food
Polydipsia: Increased thirst for drinks.
Followed by Weight Loss, because Insulin is an Anabolic Hormone (help synthesize stuff in the body) so when it gets depleted or useless due to Resistance, the body undergoes catabolism (break down stuff) so the weight decreases.
Blood Tests which determine the level of Glucose in your body are very vital in the diagnosis. You must go ahead with the tests to actually discover if you have DM, these symptoms are not only the sole criteria for diagnosis. This also applies to all diseases; you must get some Investigative Tests Results before a diagnosis.
How are the Type II people managed?
The doctor prescribes Oral Anti Diabetic Drugs which help maintain the glucose Level.
You have to manage your lifestyle, this is where the family support comes, you must lead a strict dietary lifestyle and I guess your Family can help you to achieve this. Yes, the drugs that you take are to be taken throughout your life but those few seconds of gulping those meds, in time can make the difference. You must be Punctual, must take the meds and food at timely intervals.
In Depth Management:
Low Carbohydrate:This includes the “Bhaat ” that we Nepalese consume most often. Daily intake of 45-65 % is advised.
Fat: Oil Content: Daily Intake of less than 35%
Protein: includes the meat and fish: Daily Intake of 10-15 %
Fresh Fruits and Vegetables: 5 or more servings.
Salt Intake: Control the Salt intake, up to 6 grams a day.
It’s actually OK to consume foods which are sugar free as they contain the non nutritive sweeteners.
Control the body weight, try reaching the appropriate target over the months and please do continue to exercise.
Complications just arise when you stop caring about this disease, if you don’t control the Glucose level. When you take the Oral Anti Diabetic Drugs, those drugs progressively decrease the glucose level in the body and If You don’t take meals on time, those drugs will keep decreasing the level of glucose and you will develop what is called Hypoglycemia, Your Brain as I mentioned Yesterday is sensitive to changes and when the glucose doesn’t reach the brain, you feel dizzy and lose Consciousness.
What You Need To Do:
Support the Family Member that has DM, Advise them to be regular about Exercise and Diet! Control of the Glucose level is way to beat this menace!