Talk On Intestine : Feel Your Body Series II

Intestinal Obstruction:

Description:
The Intestine is the organ that comes after the stomach.

Intestine is divided into two parts: the Small Intestine and the Large intestine.

The function of the Small Intestine is to reabsorb the digested food particles also called as chyle.

The function of the large intestine is to store the undigested food material and release it at a timely interval.

What is intestinal Obstruction?

Like any obstruction , it means the intestine is blocked and as a result ( just imagine what happens when a water pipe at your home is blocked?), the water stops travelling and the area above the obstruction gets distended, the same happens to your gut wall (intestinal wall ).

What are the types of Intestinal Obstruction?

Dynamic and Adynamic varieties

The Dynamic variety more common, is the IO where peristalsis is persistent even after obstruction and the adynamic variety is the opposite of that.

Common causes of Dynamic Variety

• Intraluminal ( Inside the water pipe )
Gallstone
Foreign Body
Worms
Hair bolus ( Hair is eaten by mentally incompetent people )

• Luminal (Pipe)
Tumour
Stricture
Atresia
Tuberculosis
Crohns disease
UC ( Ulcerative Colitis )

• Extraluminal ( Outside the Pipe)
Bands
Adhesions
Hernia
Intussusception
Volvulus
Large mass: Cancerous mass

Common causes of Adynamic Variety
(Mostly happens in post operative conditions)

• Paralytic Ilieus
• Mesentery vascular obstruct
• Pseudo Obstruct

What to Expect?

• pain in your abdomen , right or left side , upper side or lower
• fullness of abdomen
• vomiting
• constipation

What should you do?

Please please give a proper history about any previous surgery; do you have a genetic condition? please share your family history.

How long have you been suffering from the above mentioned factors? Is it persistent? Then go to your doctor! You don’t want to create surgical disaster by just waiting for the symptoms to go, do you?

Happy Digesting People !

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Feel Your Body!:Talk On Stomach

We all have different paces of life; some are more passive while others are more active. We roam, we work hard all day and at the end of the day we don’t get time to think about our body, unless we get morbidly sick  and then we decide to consult a physician.

This time, I will be briefing you up with the different organs of the body. Most of the bio students already know where and how the organs are, but this time we go a little further.
Starting with the Abdomen, the area around your belly.

Anatomy: As I had mentioned in the previous post that the abdomen is divided into 9 segments for surgical purpose and so the stomach mostly lies in the area called Epigastrium( Upper Central Portion ). Try placing your hand on it as I describe it further.
The stomach is a continuation of the esophagus as you can see in the picture and it has several parts like the cardiac end, the fundus, the body and antral part. It has two valves or sphincters both at the cardiac end and the antral end so that the food stays inside the stomach.

Physiology:
When food enters the cardiac end of the stomach, the muscles usually relaxes and allows 0.8-1.5 liters of food to accumulate, then after crossing that level, it starts to contract. Depending on the variety of the food that you consume, the food remains in the stomach for a minimum of 5hrs. The physiology (action) of the stomach is closely correlated with the nervous system and the local hormones that it releases.

Biochemistry:
Your stomach is always acidic (can be alkaline in pathological cases), and so it has secretions of hydrochloric acid. Due to this acidic environment most bacteria are destroyed expect for Helicobacter Pylori (which is the leading cause of peptic ulcer disease). Along with the acid, the gastric juice contains saliva and hormones like histamine, serotonin and most importantly pepsinogen /pepsin when activated.

Pathology:
What could the symptoms be?
Stomach associated diseases are the most common causes of hospital checkups. We all have suffered something that you normally call “Gastric”. Well it could be due to several diseases but they all have common symptoms like

  • Dyspepsia (acid reflux)
  • Anorexia (dislike towards eating)
  • Vomiting
  • Hematemesis (vomiting out blood with food)
  • Belching
  • Melaena (defecation of black stool, signifies presence of blood in stool)

Let’s look at some diseases that could be possible with the following symptoms

  • • Acute Gastritis
  • • Chronic Gastritis
  • • Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disorder
  • • Peptic Ulcer Disease
  • • Gastric Carcinoma

(I will be discussing these diseases in the days to follow)

What should be done?
People who take coffee or tea on a regular basis are seen to be suffering most of the symptoms. Consult with a physician before taking any medicine especially drugs like Aspirin and other NSAIDs when you have these symptoms. Avoid Worrying in life, Avoid Hurry and Avoid Curry and Spicy Food!

Happy Digesting people!